Collective and normative features of gang violence

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APA Style (12pt times new roman, double spaced, no spacing between paragraphs, etc)

3 peer-reviewed resources + attached PDF article

900 words

Include both an introduction and a conclusion

You work for a local judge who has made you aware of her desire to better understand gang violence. The judge presides over different types of criminal cases but has noticed that in the past few months, there seems to be a surge of cases in her courtroom involving gang violence. The judge found out that you recently graduated with a master’s degree in criminal justice. Therefore, she finds you to be well-qualified to provide some direction concerning the gang literature. 

She has asked that you thoroughly review the research article entitled “Collective and Normative Features of Gang Violence” provided in PDF attached.  Prepare an essay for her in which you address each of the following elements:

· Describe the primary purpose of the study. What were the overarching research questions that the study was designed to answer?

· Identify the key concepts (variables) measured and reported in the article.

· What were the conceptual and operational definitions of gang violence used in the study? Were these definitions effective? Explain.

· Briefly describe the different types of validity (face, content, criterion-related, and construct validity).

· Explain whether you think the study had strong face, content, criterion-related, and/or construct validity, providing rationale.

· Explain whether the study produced reliable measures of gang violence, providing rationale for your position. Support your response by describing three techniques that could be used to assess reliability.

· Synthesize the study results. Given what you learned from the study reviewed, provide recommendations to the judge for addressing the recent surge of cases involving gang violence in her courtroom.